Clean, economical and powerful. IHI produces a variety of turbochargers, ranging from a super-compact model for automobiles and motorcycles to a full sized model for large marine diesel engines. Highly reputed in many field, including auto racing, our turbo offers first-rate performance, high reliability and a long service life.
Expertise gained in the manufacture of high speed rotary machines, especially aerospace jet engines, has helped IHI to develop and manufacture worldclass turbo with a wide range of technology features.
IHI vigorously engages in R & D of turbocharging systems in order to meet more diversified and sophisticated market needs.
Popular Turbo Models
Garrett Engine Boosting System is recognised around the world as a leader in the turbocharger industry. Garrett develops and manufactures some of the most innovative boosting technologies available today.
Garrett turbochargers are not only found on the highway - they also play a prominent role on racetracks. Many top car-racing teams use Garrett turbochargers to give them an edge during tough races that demand power, endurance and reliability. Most of the world's top engine and machine manufacturers employ Garrett turbochargers to boost their engines.
Garrett Engine Boosting System operates as a division of Honeywell, Inc., a US$24billion diversified technology and manufacturing leader. Today, Garrett employs more than 6,000 people worldwide.
Popular Turbo Models
KKK is a leading supplier of innovative turbocharging systems and a competent partner to the automotive industry worldwide.
In the engine output range of 20-1000 kW per exhaust gas turbocharger, KKK offers a broad range of products for passenger cars and commercial vehicles, as well as for industrial, locomotive and marine engines.
Popular Turbo Models
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) takes pride in producing high quality turbos that are reliable, high tech, compact and light weight.
Since 1957, we are the leading manufacturer of the small size turbo for passenger car engine. MHI is able to design turbo that meet any customer requirement via our extensive knowledge of the engine and turbo, as well as a broad matching data. MHI turbo are produced under the strictest quality in the Sagamihara factory in Japan using the latest technology.
Simplified turbo designs allow assembly by robots to achieve the world highest quality standards and reliability.
Popular Turbo Models
Holset has an outstanding track record in the field of class-leading turbocharger technology. Our turbo are to be found breathing life into ever-increasing number of the world's medium and heavy-duty diesel engines.
We are a global company. Our manufacturing and support facilities around the world are committed to providing the highest possible levels of service and satisfaction to our customers.
Popular Turbo Models
Application Engine OE Part No. Turbo Model Turbo Brand Turbo Part Number
CHARADE Z840 17200 87702-F RHB32A IHI Turbo NB130014
CHARADE G100 Z903B 17200-87710-B RHB32A IHI Turbo NB130038
CHARADE GTI E103 17200 87705-G RHB51 IHI Turbo NB150026
CHARADE GTI E103 17200 87707-C RHB51W IHI Turbo VA130018 VQ18
FOURTRAK DL-50 /Z729 17201 87303-B RHB6D IHI Turbo VA140015 VQ5
FOURTRAK D E124 17201 87304 / 5B RHB52 IHI Turbo VF130071 VQ15
FOURTRAK F70-MGT2 17201 87306-B RHB52W IHI Turbo VA180033 VQ22
FOURTRAK - 17201-87307 RHF5 IHI Turbo VB430026 VQ35
Ford / Mazda
Application Engine OE Part No. Turbo Model Turbo Brand Turbo Part Number
323 (84-86) B660 B660D RHB52BW IHI Turbo NB150032 VJ12
323 (85-87) P233 B6N7 RHB52MW IHI Turbo NB150047 VJ16
323 (87-89) P233 B6N8 RHB52BW IHI Turbo NB150048 VJ17
323 (88-89) B695(EC) B695C RHB52MW IHI Turbo VB130023 VJ9
323 (92- ) BP55 BP55B/A RHB52UW IHI Turbo VB130068 VJ21
RALLY BPC8 BPC8C/D RHF6 IHI Turbo VB680011 VJ23
RANGER DOUBLE CAB J82Y WL11 RHF5 IHI Turbo VB430012 VJ25
RANGER DOUBLE CAB J97A WL84 RHF5 IHI Turbo VB430013 VJ26
- P316USA B6E8 - IHI Turbo NB150061 VJ14
- J25A RF2B - IHI Turbo VB410047 VJ27
Application Engine OE Part No. Turbo Model Turbo Brand Turbo Part Number
AIR COMPRESSOR 4D31T ME013714X TD06-11A-8 MHI Turbo 49179 00210
CANTER - MD202879 TF035 MHI Turbo 49135 03300
CANTER - ME013458 TD05 MHI Turbo 49178 02115
CANTER 4D31T ME013714 TD06-11A-8 MHI Turbo 49179 00210
CANTER 4D31T ME013717 TD06-11A-8 MHI Turbo 49179 00220
CANTER - ME014881 TD05 MHI Turbo 49178 02385
CANTER - ME083572 TD06H MHI Turbo 49179 00251
CANTER - - TD05 MHI Turbo 49178 02300
CANTER/ FUSO TRUCK, 6D31 ME083527 TD06-19C-12 MHI Turbo 49179 00240
CHALLANGER - ME202246 TF035 MHI Turbo 49135 03200
CHALLANGER (98- ) 4M40 ME202012 TF035 MHI Turbo 49135 03110
DELICA 4D56DE MD106720 TD04-09B-4 MHI Turbo 49177 01510
DELICA 4D56DE MD168054 TD04-09B-4 MHI Turbo 49177 01511
DELICA 4D56 MD301292 TD04-11G-4 MHI Turbo 49177 02520
DELICA - MR355220 TD04 MHI Turbo 49177 01515
DELICA - - - MHI Turbo 49177 02521
FUSO TRUCK 6D16T ME073081 TD07S-25A-13 MHI Turbo 49187 00220
FUSO TRUCK - ME073583 TD07S-25A-13 MHI Turbo 49187 00280
FUSO TRUCK 6D16T ME073935 TD07S-25A-13 MHI Turbo 49187 00271
FUSO TRUCK, FE92 4D34T1 ME015165 TD05H-14G-12 MHI Turbo 49178 02130
GET. SET 4D31 MD013736 TD05-12B-6 MHI Turbo 49178 00595
GT3000 LEFT - MD168264 TD04-09B-6 MHI Turbo 49177 02400/10
GT3000 RIGHT - MD169726 TD04-09B-6 MHI Turbo 49177 02300/10
L200 Unknown Email us
TF035 MHI Turbo 49135 02110
L200 4D56 MR212759 TF035 MHI Turbo Email us
L200 - MR355222 TD04-10T-4 MHI Turbo 49177 01504
L200 - MR355223 TD04 MHI Turbo 49177 01505
L200 (95- ) 4D56 MD194843 TD04-10T-4 MHI Turbo 49177 01503
L300 4D56 MR188348/ MR355230 TD04-10T-4 MHI Turbo 49377 02002
L300 - - TF035 MHI Turbo 49135 02310
L300 4D56 MR188347 TD04-10T-4 MHI Turbo 49377 02001
L300 (4WD) 4D56 MD195396 TD04-10T-4 MHI Turbo 49177 01513
L400 4D56V MD303187 TD04-10T-4 MHI Turbo 49177 02530
L400 - - TF035 MHI Turbo 49135 02230
L400 - - TD04 MHI Turbo 49177 02531
LANCER EVO 3 - - TD05H-16G-7 MHI Turbo 49178 01470
LANCER EVO 4 - MR385833 TD05H-16G-7 MHI Turbo 49178 01510
LANCER EVO 5 - MR431439 TD05H MHI Turbo 49178 01520
LANCER EVO 6 - MR497077 TD05H MHI Turbo 49178 01560
LANCER EVO 7 - MR597260 TD05H MHI Turbo 49178 01580
LANCER EVO 8 - MR597259 TD05H MHI Turbo 49178 01590
PAJERO 4D56DE MD106720 TD04-09B-4 MHI Turbo 49177 01510
PAJERO 4D56 MD168054 TD04-09B-4 MHI Turbo 49177 01511
PAJERO - MD170563 TD04-11G-4 MHI Turbo 49177 02500
PAJERO 4D56SJ MD187208 TD04-11G-4 MHI Turbo 49177 02501
PAJERO 4D56Q MD187211 TD04-11G-4 MHI Turbo 49177 02511
PAJERO 4D56Q DOM MD194844 TD04-11G-4 MHI Turbo 49177 02502
PAJERO 4D56 MD194845 TD04-11G-4 MHI Turbo 49177 02512
PAJERO - ME201635 TD04-12T-4 MHI Turbo 49377 03033
PAJERO 4M4 (EFTA) ME201637 TD04-12T-4 MHI Turbo 49377 03053
PAJERO - ME202578 TD035HM-12T-4 MHI Turbo 49135 03130
PAJERO 4D56 MR355224 TD04-11G-4 MHI Turbo 49177 02503
PAJERO 4D56 MR355225 TD04-11G-4 MHI Turbo 49177 02513
PAJERO - - TF035 MHI Turbo 49135 03410
PAJERO - - TF035 MHI Turbo 49135 03411
PAJERO (84-91) 4D56 MD017658 TC05-10A-6 MHI Turbo 49168 01202
PAJERO (84-91) 4D56 MD083538 TD04-09B-4 MHI Turbo 49177 01010
PAJERO (84-91) 4D56SJ MD094740 TD04-09B-4 MHI Turbo 49177 01500
PAJERO (84-91) 4D56SJ MD168053 TD04-09B-4 MHI Turbo 49177 01501
PAJERO (94- ) 4M40 ME201258 TD04-12T-4 MHI Turbo 49377 03041
PAJERO (94- ) 4M40 ME201258 TD04-12T-4 MHI Turbo 49377 03043
PAJERO MINI 4A30 MD613083 TD02MR2-04K MHI Turbo 49130 01610
PAJERO MINI (97-) 4A30 MD188528 TD02MR2-04K MHI Turbo 49130 01600
STORM ('01- ) 4D56 MR224978 TF035 MHI Turbo Email us
TRUCK 6D15 ME032938 TD07-22A-17 MHI Turbo 49175 00428
TRUCK 6D14T ME033782 TD06-19C-12 MHI Turbo 49179 00200
TRUCK - ME033810 TD07S-25A-13 MHI Turbo 49187 00200
TRUCK 6D16 ME047102 TD07-22A-21 MHI Turbo 49175 00418
TRUCK 6D14WT ME047102 TD07-22A-21 MHI Turbo 49175 00418/ 00410
TRUCK 6D22T ME053563 / 934 TD08-22B-22 MHI Turbo 49174 00105/01140
TRUCK 6D22 ME053936 TD08-22B-28 MHI Turbo 49174 01142
TRUCK 6D22T3 ME053939 TD08H-25B-22 MHI Turbo 49188 01261
TRUCK 6D22 ME053940 TD08H-21D-22 MHI Turbo 49188 01262
TRUCK 8DC9 ME064786 TD07 MHI Turbo 49175 00200
TRUCK 8DC9T2 ME064841 TD07 MHI Turbo 49175 00201
TRUCK 4D31 ME080442 TD04HL-13G-6 MHI Turbo 49189 00800
TRUCK 8DC9T2(R) ME090009 TD07CB-18A-21 MHI Turbo 49175 00217/293
TRUCK 6D22 ME150464 TD08H-26M-22 MHI Turbo 49188 01256
TRUCK 6D24T ME150485 TD08H-26M-25 MHI Turbo 49188 01281
TRUCK 6M70 ME162058 TD08H-26M-27 MHI Turbo 49188 01285
TRUCK (FIGHTER) 6D14T ME033536 TC06-17B-12 MHI Turbo 49169 00300
TRUCK, FE90-91 4D31T MD013134 TD05-12B-8 MHI Turbo 49178 02110
- Unknown Email us
TF035 MHI Turbo 49135 02100
- 6D22T ME121570 TD08H-27M-22 MHI Turbo 49188 01286
- - ME202435 TF035 MHI Turbo 49135 03111
Application Engine OE Part No. Turbo Model Turbo Brand Turbo Part Number
200SX (96- ) - 14411-82F01 TB2815 Garrett Turbo 471104 0001
200SX [S13] (88-94) CA18DET 14411-44F01 TB2525 Garrett Turbo 465795 0001/ 3/ 4
200SX [S14] (94-96) SR20DEY 14411-75F00 TB2809 Garrett Turbo 466543 0001
300ZX - - TB2207 Garrett Turbo 466083 0007
300ZX (90-94) VG30DETT 14411-40P06 TB2206 Garrett Turbo 466081 0003/ 5/ 7
300ZX (90-94) VG30DETT - TB2208 Garrett Turbo 466079 0003
300ZX AUTO - - TB2211 Garrett Turbo 466252 0005
300ZX AUTO (90-94) VG30DETT 14411-40P06 TB2206 Garrett Turbo 466252 0001 / 3
300ZX AUTO (90-94) VG30DETT 14411-40P16 TB2207 Garrett Turbo 466083 0004/ 6
300ZX MANUAL (90-94) - 14411-40P01 TB2210 Garrett Turbo 466135 0001/ 3
300ZX MANUAL (90-94) VG30DETT 14411-40P11 TB2209 Garrett Turbo 466073 0005/ 7
PULSAR/ SUNNY GTIR - 14411-54C00 TB2804 Garrett Turbo 465997 0001/ 4
SILVIA/ BLUEBIRD CA18T 14411-17F06 TB0210 Garrett Turbo 466370-0023
SILVIA/ BLUEBIRD (84-90) CA18ET 14411-17F01 TB0210 Garrett Turbo 466370-0019
SKYLINE (89- ) - 14411-05U20 TE2701 Garrett Turbo 466071 0002
SKYLINE GT-R RB26 DETT 14411-RS580 T25 Garrett Turbo 466089 0005
KL Turbo One Sdn. Bhd.
38, Jalan Segambut Bawah,
51200 Kuala Lumpur.
Tel : (603) 6252 1182
Fax : (603) 6252 8689
Email : email@example.com
Website : www.turbo.com.my
List of Models
Legacy 90-94 2.2L IHI RHB52W VF-11X
All Turbo Applications 86-91 1.8L IHI RHB52W VF-4X
All Turbo Applications 85 1.8L IHI RHB52W VF-1X
Brat 84 1.1L IHI RHB52DW VF-7X
323 88-89 1.6L IHI RHB52MW VJ-14X
626, MX6 88-92 2.2L IHI RHB52KW VJ-11X
626 86-87 2.0L IHI RHB52KW VJ-5X
RX7 (Sequential) 89-93 1.3L HIT HT12 HT12-RX7DX
RX7 90-89 1.3L HIT HT18 HT18SCX
88-87 1.3L HIT HT18 HT18SBX
Camary (Diesel) 86 2.0L TOY CT20 17201-64020X
84-85 1.8L TOY CT20 17201-64020X
Celica All-Trak 90-93 2.0L TOY CT26 17201-74040X
88-89 2.0L TOY CT26 17201-74010X
MR2 90-93 2.0L TOY CT26 17201-74060X
Supra 89-93 3.0L TOY CT26 17201-42020X
86-88 3.0L TOY CT26 17201-42011X
Pickup (GAS) 85-88 2.4L TOY CT20 17201-35010X
Pickup (Diesel) 86 2.4L TOY CT20 17201-64020X
4Runner 84-88 2.4L TOY CT20 17201-35010X
3000 GT VR-4 (Front) 91-94 3.0L MHI TD04 49177-2310X
3000 GT VR-4 (Rear) 91-94 3.0L MHI TD04 49177-2410X
Cordia 85-88 1.8L MHI TC05 49168-1811X
83-84 1.8L MHI TC05 49168-1810X
Eclipse (Auto) 95-96 2.2L GAR TB2566 466491-6X
(Manual) 95-96 2.2L GAR TB2566 466491-5X
Eclipse (Auto) 90-94 2.2L MHI TD04 49177-1900X
(Manual) 90-94 2.2L MHI TD05H 49178-1010X
Galant (Auto) 88-94 2.2L MHI TD04 49177-1900X
(Manual) 88-94 2.2L MHI TD05H 49178-1010X
85-87 1.8L MHI TC05 49168-1811X
82-84 1.8L MHI TC05 49168-1810X
Mirage (DOHC) 88-89 1.6L MHI TD04 49177-1810X
(SOHC) 87 1.6L MHI TD05 49177-1310X
(SOHC) 85-86 1.6L MHI TC04 49177-1201X
(SOHC) 83-84 1.6L MHI TC04 49177-1200X
Montero 86 2.3L MHI TD04 49177-1010X
84-85 2.3L MHI TD04 49177-1020X
Starion 88-89 2.6L MHI TD05 49178-1740X
Starion (Intercooled) 85-87 2.6L MHI TD05 49178-1730X
Starion (Non-Intercooled) 87 2.6L MHI TD05 49178-1600X
Starion (Non-Intercooled) 85-86 2.6L MHI TC05 49168-1601X
82-84 2.6L MHI TC05 49168-1600X
Tredia 85-88 1.8L MHI TC05 49168-1811X
82-84 1.8L MHI TC05 49168-1810X
D50 Pick-Up (Diesel) 84-86 2.3L MHI TD04 49177-1020X
82-83 2.3L MHI TC05 49168-1500X
200SX 84-86 1.8L GAR TB0210 466370-6X
280ZX 81-83 2.8L GAR TB0306 14420-P9000X
300ZX 84 3.0L GAR TB0306 14420-P9001X
300ZX 85-87 3.0L GAR TB0306 14420-P9002X
300ZX 88-89 3.0L GAR TB25 14420-17V02X
300ZX (Auto) Right 90-94 3.0L GAR TB2211 466252-2X
300ZX (Auto) Left 90-94 3.0L GAR TB2207 466083-3X
300ZX (Manual) Left 90-94 3.0L GAR TB2209 466073-4X
300ZX (Manual) Right 90-94 3.0L GAR TB2210 466135-2X
Pulsar 83-84 1.5L GAR TB0202 466028-1X
Pulsar (Watercooled Ugrade) 83-85 1.5L GAR TB0211 466414-2
The Home Dyno graphs contain a wealth of information about your car's performance. The following illustrations should help in the analysis of your car's performance, as well as help identify proper use of the Home Dyno Kit. The following information has been accumulated by various Home Dyno users.
A peak followed by a short valley (usually in the beginning of the RPM range) likely indicates that wheelspin has occurred. Remember that the Home Dyno is measuring engine output, and can only give an accurate representation of power if that power is being applied to acceleration. When wheelspin occurs, a lot of the energy that could potentially be used to accelerate the car is being used to heat the tires. Since heating the tires often takes less energy than accelerating the car, the graph will show too much power while wheelspin is occurring.
This power loss occurred in the higher rpm range. It was later traced to an over-sensitive knock sensor which was sending a knock signal to the car's computer. The computer cut back (retarded) timing for an instant, and then ramped timing back up (advanced) when the false knock signal subsided. The rest of the curve in this example was relatively smooth.
A power curve that fluctuates for most of the rpm range might indicate that there is noise in the signal. Noise can cause the Home Dyno software to misinterpret noise as pulses, or can cause a false pulse-start location. When noise is interpreted as a spark, the software will interpret rpm in a high/low fashion. For example, if noise was picked up before the actual pulse, this rpm reading would be too high, resulting in a power reading that is too high. The next reading, however, would have too much time between pulses, resulting in too little rpm/power. This is the reason that noise can cause the "wavy" curve. If noise levels are low, fluctuations like this might indicate that your car is hunting for a variable such as timing, fuel mixture, etc. On some cars, power curves may smooth out after a few runs as the car's computer learns the proper parameters. This would only apply if the battery has been recently disconnected before the dyno run.
Too Much/Too Little Power?
Let's say you have a stock 95 Z28, and therefore expect your engine to be putting out about 275 hp peak, but the Home Dyno is returning 350 horsepower. The most likely explanation for this discrepancy is an incorrect parameter entered into the program. Make sure that you know your axle ratio, and have entered the proper gear ratio. We have found that these parameters are the one's most commonly entered incorrectly. If you bought your car used, remember that changing the rear axle ratio is a very common performance mod, and the previous owner may have changed it. Other than a parameter error, the only other possibility for a curve that is too high is a slipping clutch. If you have a manual transmission, make sure your clutch is in good shape, because if it is slipping during a run, you will get false high power readings. If the curve is too low and you have checked all parameters, the problem is most likely a poorly performing engine.
Severe power curve dropouts are almost always caused by loss of signal or signal strength fluctuations. It doesn't mean that your car was making near zero power in this range; it just means that the program lost the signal. It might be losing the signal due to improper connection to the plug wire, or just a poor recording. But... the problem might be the car. We tested one car with coil problems that exhibited this problem. The spark was actually very weak at certain rpm ranges, but not others. To try the easiest thing first, just try a different plug wire in a different location.
Why is low compression better for a Turbocharged Engine?
You make horsepower by how much air you move through the motor. A high compression 10:1 engine is more efficient than a 7:1 engine, so the 10:1 engine gives you more bang for the buck. However, because the lower compression is not as efficient, it will move more air through it. So, at 15 PSI of boost, the 7:1 engine will have an effective compression ratio of 14:1, will not be into detonation, and be moving more air, making more horsepower than the same conditions for the 10:1 engine. That engine will be in self-destruct mode, have detonation, and an effective compression ratio of 20:1!
This is why the racers only run 5:1 or even 6:1. All of this is great for a drag car, but because the static compression is lower, you will not have much bottom end torque either. So, since most of us don't drag race every place we go, a good compromise would be 8:1 or 8.5:1 compression. This way you don't loose too much bottom end for driveability, and if you don't run too much boost, say 10 to 15 PSI, you stay away from the gray effective compression area of 15:1 and up.
Remember, that the shape of the combustion area, cam, type of fuel, etc. all play a part of when the engine starts to detonate. It comes down to start with low boost, and sneak it up from there until you run into problems.
What should people keep in mind when building an Engine for a Turbo?
Valves: One interesting thing about heads we found with the turbo engines is that some people have taken and made both valves the same size. Rumor has it that they are different sizes to keep the vacuum signal high to keep the carb happy. Anyway, the one's that have made both valves 40mm are very fast and an interesting side effect is they say it takes longer to heat up the motor. They seem to run cooler.
Cam: On naturally aspirated engines that run high RPMs, usually there is a lot of overlap because the air doesn't start moving instantly. By opening both valves at the same time, it gives the intake a head start and helps to flush out the cylinder of the exhaust. The exhaust by now is a column of air that is already headed out the pipe and helps pull in the intake charge. On turbo cars, this valve overlap will allow the increased cylinder and exhaust pressure to flow backward into the intake.
Some turbo cam grinds also wait with opening the intake valve until the piston is already headed down. This is because on a boosted engine the exhaust back pressure can be as high as 30 PSI. The intake pressure under boost is only 15 PSI and will be blown backward. By waiting until the piston has started downward, the cylinder pressure drops and the trick is to open the intake valve just as the cylinder pressure is crossing 15 PSI (in this example).
Good high performance cams for naturally aspirated engines will have a intake and exhaust duration of say 270, 280, or 288, 298 etc. Notice the exhaust event is longer than the intake. On turbo grinds, it is always shorter, say 270, 260 (intake, exhaust), or 275, 255.
On turbo VW's, reports are coming in that the Engle 110 turbo grind has better bottom end than the Engle 120 turbo grind. The turbo grind 120 loses bottom end but trades it for top end RPMs. This is all "Seat of the pants" scientific evaluations. Hopefully somebody out there has done some "Turbo" cam comparisons. I have used a regular Engle 120 and have had very good success although I would recommend a turbo grind if you are building a new turbo motor.
Rod Length: What's the difference in the length of the rods and what effect does it have on an engine? After doing a lot of research, here's what I found. First, a stock length rod will make good bottom end torque because of the thrust angle relationship to the crank. The piston speed is much faster for a given RPM compared to a longer rod. The long rod motor has 3 things going for it. First, the piston speed is slower because the thrust angles are less. Second, because the thrust angles are less, it can spin the crank faster. And third, the reason a long rod engine makes more horsepower than a short rod is because the piston is at the top of the cylinder longer, so the combustion pressures have more time to push on it. Just things to consider when building up an engine. Short rod = Good bottom end torque and mid range. Long rod = Good mid range, excellent high RPMs.
Oil: At full throttle, the turbo can spin at speeds upwards of 100,000 RPMs. At these speeds it's going to need a constant supply of oil to lubricate and cool the bearings. It will have a small supply line going into the top (1/8" pipe thread) and a larger return line coming out the bottom (1/2" or 5/8"). You can supply the turbo with oil by adding a "T" fitting at the oil pressure sending unit on the engine (next to the distributor.)
Why the bigger return line? After the oil goes through the turbo bearings, it's going to get whipped into a frothy lather. It's important that this large return line be allowed to gravity drain back into the case at a point above the oil level. This will allow some time for the oil and air to separate. You can return the oil into a valve cover, or into the old fuel pump hole. It never-ever "T"s back into the oil lines!!!
Oil Pressure: Wire the oil pressure sender to a loud horn. Something that's loud enough to overcome the noise of your eyeballs rattling at the top of that monster hill. With the higher RPMs, full flow, and bigger oil pump it is possible you could run out of oil at the top of a hill. Depending on your application, it may be necessary to increase your engines oil capacity through the use of a deep sump or dry sump. That decision is something you have to make yourself. I can say this though, your engine will run without oil for a certain period of time. (Don't test this though!) Because of the high rotational speeds of a turbo under boost, it will fail quicker than your co-pilot can say "What was that noise?" so keep it oiled.
Oil Type: The science of oil and oil types is enough to fill a book so don't expect this paragraph to answer all questions for every engine application. You want to use an oil with an SE or SF classification. This classification has antiscuffing agents that turbochargers like. Watch out with multi-viscosity oils. The polymer additives in these oils do not like the heat of the turbo bearing very well. In a street car with a really hot turbo, these viscosity additives can aid in oil "coking" which means that after you shutdown the engine, the oil will bake itself into charred clumps in the turbo's bearing housing. In a buggy, the turbo will typically be exposed to open air so it will tend to stay cooler than it would be in a closed engine compartment so oil coking is not as much of a problem. Whenever possible avoid these multi-viscosity additives and use the proper straight grade oil (SAE 30, etc.) If your climate requires you to use a multi-viscosity oil, then use the smallest range of viscosity necessary. One more thing: It should go without saying that you should change your oil often.
Tuning the Controller for a Turbo:
Once you follow the above directions and set the fuel curve with the turbo disabled, it's time to hook up the waste-gate and set the fuel enrichment for the turbo. These two knobs only work when the turbo is boosting and can only add to the fuel that the motor is receiving.
The BOOST START knob sets at what PSI you want boost enrichment to occur and when the boost light comes on. The range is from about 5" of vacuum to 5 PSI. With the ignition on and the engine off, turn the BOOST START knob CW (clockwise) until the boost light just comes on then turn the knob back until the light just turns off. This is the recommended setting and sets the Boost Enrichment to start at just above ambient pressure. ie. Whenever the turbo is adding boost to the motor, the computer will be adding enrichment fuel.
The BOOST QTY sets how much boost enrichment is added to the normal fuel curve. The range is from 0% to 100% depending on how much boost pressure there is and the engine RPM. Set this knob about half-way up as a starting point. When under boost turn the knob up until the engine just starts to blubber, then turn the knob down a little bit until the engine runs right. If you cannot make the engine blubber under full boost with the knob turned all the way up (CW) stop and fix the problem. You need to make sure you can over-richen the motor with this knob in order to make sure that your fuel system can supply enough fuel at full turbo boost.
Picking the Right Turbo
In this step you're going to learn about the turbo. The science of Turbos is enough to cover several books and then some. Please consider this a simple introduction and if you would like to do further research refer to the books and web links below.
Before we get started on the turbo, it would be helpful for you to have a basic understandings of a couple things. First of all, turbochargers make torque, not horsepower. Horsepower is a function of how much torque the engine has at a given RPM (ie. It is speed related). In order to increase HP without increasing torque, you will need to increase the RPM. Most of the wear, tear, and abuse in a engine is going to come from increasing the RPM because of a simple law of physics: Force increases with the square of the speed increase. In simpler terms, as you double the speed of an object, it's force increases fourfold. These are the forces that tend to tear an engine apart not add power so be aware of that when you design and build your engine. They are also the same forces that require you to spend the big bucks on the expensive high RPM parts.
A much safer and cheaper way to make the car go faster is to increase it's power output while staying in the same RPM range. This can only be done by increasing torque. With a properly sized turbo you could double the torque of the motor at a given RPM while only increasing the peak force on the engine 20% or so. Yes it sounds far fetched but here's how it works:
Keep in mind that the pressure in your combustion chamber is a combination of the how much pressure your piston created when it compressed the fuel mix and the pressure from the burning mix. This fuel mix will burn in your combustion chamber at a certain speed depending on mixture, pressure, and other factors, but for simplicity sake just be aware that it does not burn instantly. In a combustion engine the peak pressure is reached near the top of the stroke when only a small portion of the fuel mix has burned. After that point the piston is accelerating downward and the cylinder pressure drops off rapidly while the fuel is still burning.
In a turbo engine under boost, you may have twice as much fuel mix in the combustion chamber, but since it does not all burn at the same time this additional pressure does not add much to the total cylinder pressure that would have existed in a normally aspirated engine. Now as the piston is accelerating downward there is more burning fuel in the combustion chamber and this burning fuel mix pushes harder than a normally aspirated motor. This is where the real power increase in a turbo takes place. At about 90 degree crank angle the turbo engine's fuel mix is pushing on the piston 3 or 4 times harder than a normally aspirated engine would push. The pushing pressure is still less than the peak pressure which occurred near the start of combustion so it does not create the "overload" to the engine that most people would expect.
So you see that while the peak pressure in the cylinder has not doubled, the average pressure pushing on the piston over the entire stroke has doubled. This higher average pressure translates into more torque at the rear tires at the same RPM.
In the above explanation I have attempted to summarize a fairly complex topic. For a more in depth explanation I invite you to look in the "Maximum Boost" book below which has a fairly good explanation of the entire process.
If you've read the previous sections, the above may also help you further understand why the racers use low compression motors with turbos and why turbo cams have different valve timing. In short, you want as much fuel/air mix as possible in the combustion chamber and you want it to push on the piston harder and longer.
As an added bonus, a properly designed turbo car will be more drive-able at low speeds than an equally fast non-turbo car with the same size engine. Remember turbos like relatively docile cams. The low overlap turbo cam will provide better low speed driving and more low speed torque than a high overlap "race" cam. When you hit the gas and the turbo kicks in though . . . watch out.
Ping, pong, knock, detonate: When the turbo compresses air, the air gets hotter. Most of this heat is due to a law of nature that says when you compress something it will get hotter. Some additional heat is due to inefficiencies in the turbo itself. What's important to understand is that the hotter intake temperature increases combustion chamber temperature. The higher combustion chamber temperatures, higher pressures, and higher compression speeds (RPMs) can lead to deadly detonation. Detonation can be thought of as a spontaneous explosion in the cylinder, rather than the more desirable even burn. It is for this reason that you must use good quality fuel especially at higher boost pressures and never ever let the engine detonate. Fix the source of the detonation immediately.
One of the problems a lot of people have with turbos is the dreaded Turbo Lag. How do you pick the right turbo for a motor and and how do you minimize turbo lag?
The point where the turbo comes in depends on a lot of things, cam, compression ratio, design of intake and exhaust manifolds, and the turbo itself. Different snail shell housings change the "Turbine Map" of when and how it pushes air. The lower the AR number(.42, .48, .6, .8 etc.), the less CFM it takes to get it going. The disadvantage of too small of an AR number is that you will exceed the limits of what it can push at higher engine RPMS. You want to match the output of the turbo to that of the cam profile of your engine. A good example is say you have an engine that you don't want to go above 5500 RPM. Well, for a VW 2276 with an Engle Turbo grind of their 120 cam, using the Chrysler T-3 off of a 2.2 Liter Daytona, the engine will be into full boost by about 2400 RPM (12 PSI) and by the time you get to a little above 5000 RPM, the engine starts to quit pulling so hard, kind of like someone put a nail in the tach. What we found out to be was the exhaust was starting to back up and couldn't get out fast enough, to produce more on the intake. This is where the "Pumping" losses take over. To correct this, say I now want my engine to go to over 6000 RPM (providing that the rest of the engine stays together), all I need to do is change the exhaust snail shell from an AR of .48 to .6. What I just did was slide the turbine map upward. Now what happens is I don't make full boost until about 3300 RPM but hang on all the way through 6000 RPM!
Pay attention to what kind of motor you want. From the example above you can build a good play motor with good bottom end and loads of fun at the top, or, by changing the cam, and other engine components to handle extreme RPMs, you can build an 8000 RPM engine at the cost of loosing bottom end. So again, are you a drag racer, or all around play car?
Use the IHI RHB52 or Ford Probe turbo for anything under 1835cc's. Use the Chrysler T-3 for 1915cc's and bigger. On big engines or high RPM engines, you will have to change the AR of the exhaust to a larger number so it will not exhaust lock on you. Exhaust lock is when no more exhaust can get out, so no more boost can be put in. These are things that the individual has to play with. If you just start with these initial pieces, you will be happy. Then start modifying and you will see what effects what and when.
Lag: Some define turbo lag as a big hole when coming off of idle. Others define it as when you come into boost. With a carb suck-through setup, you will have a big hole off of idle, and to get rid of it, you usually have to be about 2500 RPMs. With fuel injection, there is no hole, it just runs like a naturally aspirated engine until you get to enough RPMs to build boost.
You will never have instant power off of idle unless your running a blower. Even a good running naturally aspirated engine will not pull good until it gets into the RPM range where the cam can do it's magic. Same holds true for a turbo setup.
Until you get to the point where there is enough air going through it, it cannot produce any boost. Do not confuse this with a stumble off of idle. I think the lag that the carb boys talk about is the lean-out stumble, or hole off of idle. Fuel injection works just fine as if the turbo wasn't even there until you get to the point where the turbo starts to push the engine, then of course, the engine wakes up and the fun starts.
When you find a turbo at the junkyard, what should you check before you pay for it?
When you go to the the junkyard, do an overall assessment of the turbo vehicles. Look at their mileage, pop the hoods and focus on the best one. Check to make sure there is oil in the motor, and look for signs of obvious engine damage. In my opinion, it's better to find a car with obvious body damage because that will tell you why the car is likely in the junkyard.
Remember, the turbo charger was typically an afterthought to the auto manufacturers so it will be stuck wherever they could find a little bit of space. Before you bust your knuckles taking it off, pull off the air intake and put your fingers on the shaft. It should rotate smoothly all the way around without the blades rubbing on the housing. Now move the turbo shaft side to side. A little tolerance is built into the oil bearings so it should have slightly noticeable play. For sleeve type bearings, look for less than .022" side play which is a noticeable wiggle, and less than .008" end play which is not very noticeable. (A match cover is about .015" thick to give you an idea) If there is too much play, the turbo is either shot or needs a rebuild. Also check for signs of the blades rubbing on the housings, chips and rough edges on the blades and check the turbo outlets for signs of oil leaking past the seals.
Disconnect the wastegate rod and check the operation of the wastegate valve. Look for signs of major cracks on the wastegate port and check for a good sealing valve. Small cracks are to be expected on the wastegate port but if they are opening then scrap the unit or buy it for parts.
Pull off the oil lines and look for heavy deposits of charred oil in the ports. Heavy deposits may indicate that the turbo has had a rough life. Watercooled turbos will probably be in better condition.
The turbo will usually be tucked away in a tight space and the exhaust nuts may be rusted tight. Now would be a good time to spray the nuts with penetrating oil and look for other parts in the yard. When you remove the turbo, keep the oil lines on because they will help keep the dirt out. Whether you use them is up to you, however keep this in mind: That small line on the top of the turbo is the life blood of the turbo. You do not want a cheap or worn line to fail.
Depending on the application, some turbos may have an exhaust outlet that makes a hard bend toward the exhaust pipe. The housing I have seen are cast steel not cast iron so they can be cut and re-welded if need be.
While I'm thinking about it, remember to take a look at the ports where the intake air and exhaust flow through the turbo. If you see any roughness from casting marks or other defects, polish them out before installing the turbo and get a little more free performance.
Expect to pay between $35 and $100 for a used turbo at a junkyard.
The Bypass valve is installed between the turbo and the Butterfly valve. The purpose of the bypass valve is to release the pressure on the output of the turbo when shifting. What happens is when you are racing up the hill, and the turbo is putting out full boost, then you take your foot off the pedal to shift gears, the air pressure can't go down into the engine, and the turbo doesn't have any exhaust driving it anymore, so the air tries to go back out the way it came in. Sometimes under high boost conditions it can actually unscrew the nut holding on the compressor turbine wheel. Anyway it either stops the turbo, makes it go backwards, or at least it slows it down. Now the turbo has to start all over again to get back up to speed.
The fix is the bypass valve. It has a sensor hose connected below the throttle plate. This valve is normally closed to the outside world. When a high vacuum signal shows up, like when shifting gears, it pops open, and blows off the extra boost. As soon as the vacuum signal goes away (like putting your foot back on the gas), it closes and the turbo did not see any back pressure this whole time, so it stays spooled up ready for action.
The Exhaust System
"Do the exhaust runners need to be the same length for max performance?"
The answer is yes and no. Yes if you are naturally aspirated because as the pulse goes through the collector and out the megaphone, it creates a negative pressure on the tube next to it to help scavenge or suck out the exhaust on the next cylinder. If your turbo'ed, the answer is no because you will always have back pressure and never scavenge to any degree that will make a difference. The size of the tubes should be the same as the area of the exhaust valve (or port), not bigger. Bigger diameter slows down the speed of the exhaust and also cools the flow entering into the turbo. The length should not exceed approximately 125% of cylinder displacement. You want the exhaust to be as short as possible because you need the heat. The idea is that the exhaust is still expanding when it comes out and you want it to do that inside the turbo, this helps spool things up.
Some turbo books say that it's not the flow that makes the turbine spin, but the kinetic energy in the leading edge of the exhaust pulse, or the shock wave that makes it work. If so, that explains why they want the smaller exhaust pipes to keep the speed of the pulse up. Bigger tubes make volume tanks and will average or slow down that pulse. It makes sense when you think about it and remember, the engine only runs "One" pulse at a time.
The rule of thumb is keep it short and sweet. Get the exhaust to the collector as fast as possible. And remember no leaks allowed!